MPU6050与NodeMCU的接口

MPU6050传感器是一个集成了6轴运动跟踪装置的模块,分别是3轴陀螺仪和3轴加速度计,同时集成了数字运动处理器和温度传感器。通过I2C总线,他还可以接受来自其他传感器的输入,如3轴磁力计或压力传感器,因此如果将MPU6050与外部的3轴磁力计连接起来,它就可以提供完整的9轴输出了。

MPU6050在X轴、Y轴和Z轴上的陀螺仪和加速计的值是二进制补码,温度值是整数形式。陀螺仪的读数是以每秒(dps)为单位的;加速度计的读数是以 g 为单位的;温度读数的单位是摄氏度。关于MPU6050传感器模块的更多信息,以及如何使用它,可查阅:MPU6050的使用技巧

NodeMCU可以使用I2C通信协议与MPU6050传感器模块进行通信。了解更多关于NodeMCU的资料,请查阅:Nodemcu ESP8266

Nodemcu与MPU6050的接口连接图
NodeMCU连接MPU6050

测试的过程是通过Nodemcu从MPU6050传感器模块读取加速计、陀螺仪和温度值,并在串行监视器上显示出来。首先,我们需要按照上面Nodemcu与MPU6050的接口图将电路连接起来。然后让我们通过下面的程序来读取MPU6050的加速度计、陀螺仪和温度的值。我们可以通过ESPlorer IDE来编写Lua脚本或使用Arduino IDE来编写c/c++代码。

NodeMCU的Lua脚本

id  = 0 -- always 0
scl = 6 -- set pin 6 as scl
sda = 7 -- set pin 7 as sda
MPU6050SlaveAddress = 0x68

AccelScaleFactor = 16384;   -- sensitivity scale factor respective to full scale setting provided in datasheet 
GyroScaleFactor = 131;


MPU6050_REGISTER_SMPLRT_DIV   =  0x19
MPU6050_REGISTER_USER_CTRL    =  0x6A
MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_1   =  0x6B
MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_2   =  0x6C
MPU6050_REGISTER_CONFIG       =  0x1A
MPU6050_REGISTER_GYRO_CONFIG  =  0x1B
MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_CONFIG =  0x1C
MPU6050_REGISTER_FIFO_EN      =  0x23
MPU6050_REGISTER_INT_ENABLE   =  0x38
MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_XOUT_H =  0x3B
MPU6050_REGISTER_SIGNAL_PATH_RESET  = 0x68

function I2C_Write(deviceAddress, regAddress, data)
    i2c.start(id)       -- send start condition
    if (i2c.address(id, deviceAddress, i2c.TRANSMITTER))-- set slave address and transmit direction
    then
        i2c.write(id, regAddress)  -- write address to slave
        i2c.write(id, data)  -- write data to slave
        i2c.stop(id)    -- send stop condition
    else
        print("I2C_Write fails")
    end
end

function I2C_Read(deviceAddress, regAddress, SizeOfDataToRead)
    response = 0;
    i2c.start(id)       -- send start condition
    if (i2c.address(id, deviceAddress, i2c.TRANSMITTER))-- set slave address and transmit direction
    then
        i2c.write(id, regAddress)  -- write address to slave
        i2c.stop(id)    -- send stop condition
        i2c.start(id)   -- send start condition
        i2c.address(id, deviceAddress, i2c.RECEIVER)-- set slave address and receive direction
        response = i2c.read(id, SizeOfDataToRead)   -- read defined length response from slave
        i2c.stop(id)    -- send stop condition
        return response
    else
        print("I2C_Read fails")
    end
    return response
end

function unsignTosigned16bit(num)   -- convert unsigned 16-bit no. to signed 16-bit no.
    if num > 32768 then 
        num = num - 65536
    end
    return num
end

function MPU6050_Init() --configure MPU6050
    tmr.delay(150000)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_SMPLRT_DIV, 0x07)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_2, 0x00)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_CONFIG, 0x00)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_GYRO_CONFIG, 0x00)-- set +/-250 degree/second full scale
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_CONFIG, 0x00)-- set +/- 2g full scale
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_FIFO_EN, 0x00)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_INT_ENABLE, 0x01)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_SIGNAL_PATH_RESET, 0x00)
    I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_USER_CTRL, 0x00)
end

i2c.setup(id, sda, scl, i2c.SLOW)   -- initialize i2c
MPU6050_Init()
while true do   --read and print accelero, gyro and temperature value
    data = I2C_Read(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_XOUT_H, 14)
    
    AccelX = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 1), 8), string.byte(data, 2))))
    AccelY = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 3), 8), string.byte(data, 4))))
    AccelZ = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 5), 8), string.byte(data, 6))))
    Temperature = unsignTosigned16bit(bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data,7), 8), string.byte(data,8)))
    GyroX = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 9), 8), string.byte(data, 10))))
    GyroY = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 11), 8), string.byte(data, 12))))
    GyroZ = unsignTosigned16bit((bit.bor(bit.lshift(string.byte(data, 13), 8), string.byte(data, 14))))

    AccelX = AccelX/AccelScaleFactor   -- divide each with their sensitivity scale factor
    AccelY = AccelY/AccelScaleFactor
    AccelZ = AccelZ/AccelScaleFactor
    Temperature = Temperature/340+36.53-- temperature formula
    GyroX = GyroX/GyroScaleFactor
    GyroY = GyroY/GyroScaleFactor
    GyroZ = GyroZ/GyroScaleFactor
    
    print(string.format("Ax:%.3g Ay:%.3g Az:%.3g T:%.3g Gx:%.3g Gy:%.3g Gz:%.3g",
                        AccelX, AccelY, AccelZ, Temperature, GyroX, GyroY, GyroZ))
    tmr.delay(100000)   -- 100ms timer delay
end

ESPlorer串口监视器

lua脚本运行后,ESPlorer IDE的串口监视器输出如下所示:
Ax = Accelerometer x axis data in g unit

Ay = Accelerometer y axis data in g unit

Az = Accelerometer z axis data in g unit

T = temperature in degree/celcius

Gx = Gyro x axis data in degree/seconds unit

Gy = Gyro y axis data in degree/seconds unit

Gz = Gyro z axis data in degree/seconds unit
ESPlorer

NodeMCU的Arduino代码

#include <Wire.h>

// MPU6050 Slave Device Address
const uint8_t MPU6050SlaveAddress = 0x68;

// Select SDA and SCL pins for I2C communication 
const uint8_t scl = D6;
const uint8_t sda = D7;

// sensitivity scale factor respective to full scale setting provided in datasheet 
const uint16_t AccelScaleFactor = 16384;
const uint16_t GyroScaleFactor = 131;

// MPU6050 few configuration register addresses
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_SMPLRT_DIV   =  0x19;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_USER_CTRL    =  0x6A;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_1   =  0x6B;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_2   =  0x6C;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_CONFIG       =  0x1A;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_GYRO_CONFIG  =  0x1B;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_CONFIG =  0x1C;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_FIFO_EN      =  0x23;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_INT_ENABLE   =  0x38;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_XOUT_H =  0x3B;
const uint8_t MPU6050_REGISTER_SIGNAL_PATH_RESET  = 0x68;

int16_t AccelX, AccelY, AccelZ, Temperature, GyroX, GyroY, GyroZ;

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Wire.begin(sda, scl);
  MPU6050_Init();
}

void loop() {
  double Ax, Ay, Az, T, Gx, Gy, Gz;
  
  Read_RawValue(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_XOUT_H);
  
  //divide each with their sensitivity scale factor
  Ax = (double)AccelX/AccelScaleFactor;
  Ay = (double)AccelY/AccelScaleFactor;
  Az = (double)AccelZ/AccelScaleFactor;
  T = (double)Temperature/340+36.53; //temperature formula
  Gx = (double)GyroX/GyroScaleFactor;
  Gy = (double)GyroY/GyroScaleFactor;
  Gz = (double)GyroZ/GyroScaleFactor;

  Serial.print("Ax: "); Serial.print(Ax);
  Serial.print(" Ay: "); Serial.print(Ay);
  Serial.print(" Az: "); Serial.print(Az);
  Serial.print(" T: "); Serial.print(T);
  Serial.print(" Gx: "); Serial.print(Gx);
  Serial.print(" Gy: "); Serial.print(Gy);
  Serial.print(" Gz: "); Serial.println(Gz);

  delay(100);
}

void I2C_Write(uint8_t deviceAddress, uint8_t regAddress, uint8_t data){
  Wire.beginTransmission(deviceAddress);
  Wire.write(regAddress);
  Wire.write(data);
  Wire.endTransmission();
}

// read all 14 register
void Read_RawValue(uint8_t deviceAddress, uint8_t regAddress){
  Wire.beginTransmission(deviceAddress);
  Wire.write(regAddress);
  Wire.endTransmission();
  Wire.requestFrom(deviceAddress, (uint8_t)14);
  AccelX = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  AccelY = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  AccelZ = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  Temperature = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  GyroX = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  GyroY = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
  GyroZ = (((int16_t)Wire.read()<<8) | Wire.read());
}

//configure MPU6050
void MPU6050_Init(){
  delay(150);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_SMPLRT_DIV, 0x07);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_1, 0x01);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_PWR_MGMT_2, 0x00);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_CONFIG, 0x00);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_GYRO_CONFIG, 0x00);//set +/-250 degree/second full scale
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_ACCEL_CONFIG, 0x00);// set +/- 2g full scale
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_FIFO_EN, 0x00);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_INT_ENABLE, 0x01);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_SIGNAL_PATH_RESET, 0x00);
  I2C_Write(MPU6050SlaveAddress, MPU6050_REGISTER_USER_CTRL, 0x00);
}

Arduino串口监视器

Arduino IDE串口监视器的输出如下所示:
Ax = Accelerometer x axis data in g unit

Ay = Accelerometer y axis data in g unit

Az = Accelerometer z axis data in g unit

T = temperature in degree/celcius

Gx = Gyro x axis data in degree/seconds unit

Gy = Gyro y axis data in degree/seconds unit

Gz = Gyro z axis data in degree/seconds unit
nodemcu mpu6050 serial

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